PST:  


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Source: Municipal Planning Development Office)

Location    Land Area    Composition    Soil Type    Geology    Natural Drainage    Vegetation and Wildlife    Environmental Situation    Land Use





                                                      Location

        Binangonan is one of the fourteen municipalities of Rizal. It is triangular in shape and lies between the foothills of Sierra Madre Mountain and the northeastern part of Laguna de Bay. The municipality is bounded on the north by Angono, on the east by Cardona, on the northeast by Morong and Teresa and on the southeast by Laguna de Bay. The town is approximately situated fifteen (15) kilometers southeast of the Provincial Capitol of Rizal. The seat of Government is located in Barangay Calumpang along the Manila East Road and approximately six (6) kilometers after the Boundary of Angono and five (5) kilometers after from Cardona.


 

 




                                                     
Land Area

Binangonan has a total land area of SEVEN THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED (7,270) HECTARES. The area of the mainland is 5,820.55 hectares while Talim Islands is 1,449.45 hectares. Binangonan ranks the fifth biggest in the province in terms of area.
         
 

 

 

TABLE 1: LAND AREA BARANGAY

Name of Barangay Area                                In Sq. Km.
Pag-asa:                                                                 0.89213
Tayuman:                                                               6.315698
Tagpos:                                                                 1.306895
San Carlos:                                                                            
Bilibiran:                                                                2.465024
Pantok:                                                                  3.961867
Palangoy:                                                              4.707701
Darangan:                                                             4.631535
Calumpang:                                                           1.591299
Macamot:                                                              2.348285
Tatala:                                                                    3.562322
Mambog:                                                                1.329626
Mahabang Parang:                                               3.128198
Batingan:                                                                1.097120
Layunan:                                                                   2.53604
Libis:                                                                       2.348285
Libid:                                                                             2.530
Lunsad:                                                                           2.53
Pilapila:                                                                  2.789107
Ithan:                                                                       1.022041
Kalinawan:                                                                .640669
Limbon-Limbon:                                                       .305672
Pipindan:                                                                 0.504420
Kasile:                                                                     0.305672
Bombong:                                                                0.988464
Kinagatan:                                                               0.550664
Kinaboogan:                                                            1.136003
Bangad:                                                                   1.095081
Buhangin:                                                                 1.103080
Janosa:                                                                    1.743514
Kaytome:                                                                 0.791287
Gulod:                                                                       0.708557
Sapang:                                                                   1.120725
Malacaban:                                                              1.039942
Ginoong Sanay:                                                       0.879308
Pinagdilawan:                                                          0.331358
Binitagan:                                                                 0.418454
Tabon:                                                                      0.806707
Habagatan:                                                              14.46447
Rayap:                                                                      0.788656
                                                                 TOTAL:        72.70

Source: Assessor’s Office

 


Composition

Binangonan, which lies 36 kilometers from Manila and 21 kilometers from Pasig, is entirely nestled between the foothills of Sierra Madre and Laguna De Bay. The Poblacion is located in the center of 40 barangays. On the Northernmost part lie Pag-asa, Tayuman, San Carlos, Tagpos, Bilibiran, Palangoy, Pantok, Darangan, Calumpang. On the northeast towards Morong are Batingan, Tatala, Mambog, Macamot and Mahabang Parang. On the southeast are Lunsad, Libis, Layunan, Libid, Pilapila, Limbon-Limbon, ithan, Kalinawan, Pipindan and the Barangays in Talim Island namely: Kasile, Bombong, Kinagatan, Kinaboogan, Bangad, Buhangin, Janosa, Kaytome, Gulod, Sapang, Malakaban, Pinagdilawan, Ginoong Sanay, Binitagan, Tabon, Habagatan and Rayap.



Topography

About 65 % of Binangonan are hilly terrain while the rest are generally plain. The highest peak is Mt. SUSONG DALAGA 750 meters above the sea level. There are seven Barangays with slopes ranging from 0-3 degrees, eight barangays with 3-8: fifteen barangays with 8-18; and nine barangays with 18-30.

The  main mountain range is the Sierra Madre.  In Talim Island, the mountainous peaks are the Susong Dalaga in the center and the Dolores Hill in the southernmost part.  There are four islets namely: Bunga, Malahi, Pulong Gitna and Pulong Ithan.

Climate
Binangonan has two  distinct  seasons:  dry from November  to  April  and
wet during the rest of the year. The haviest rains usually occur in the months of July, August and September. The coolest period occurs the months of November to February.
Although the municipality is shielded by the Sierra Madre on the north, it is open to soutwest monsoon and cyclonic storms.


Soil Type

Soil classification is based on the data gathered from the soil survey division of the bureau of soil and water management, these are…

BOULEVARD CLAY
Soil mapping unit symbol BD Af3Soil mapping unit description 0-2% slope

Found in the shorelines of barangay Pag-asa, Tayuman and Tagpos severely flooded during rainy season which rendered it idle.

The boulevard series is a member of the fine, mixed, isohyperthermie family of Aeric Tropacuepts. These soil are moderately deep, poorly to very poorly drained, occurring on level to nearly level narrow lake terraces of the lacustrine landscape. The soils have gray or dark  clay A horizons not more than 30 cm. thick. Cambic Bg horizons extending down 50 to 100 cm. thick are gray, light gray to dark gray or greenish gray clay with distinct clear yellowish brown, strong brown, red, yellowish red mottles. Decomposed plant remains and lacustrine shells may sometimes occur. Cg horizons or substratum are greenish gray or dark greenish gray, silty clay loam or clay loam with common weathered Lacustrine shells and decomposed plant remains. Due to its approximate to the lake, the soil is subject to slight to severe flooding.

This is least extensive mapping unit, covering only about 26 percent of the series and occupying the first bottom lake terraces. This was mapped north of Bagumbayan in Muntinlupa extending towards North and Northeast of Hagonoy, Taguig just above the fresh water marshes. Another large area is found in between Napindan, Taguig  and Tayuman, Binangonan. Some isolated areas are found north of Tanay and west of Caniogan, Municipality of Morong.  Most soil profile characteristics  are   similar   to   that   described   representative   profile  for   the
series. Included are small areas with fine loamy texture in the control section and limited with deeper soil. Most of this units are cultivated to rainfed paddy rice. This covers approximately 0.21 percent of the project.

BARAS CLAY
Soil mapping unit symbolSoil mapping unit description
BrA0.2 % slope
BrB2.5 % slope
  
Found along the National road of barangay Pag-asa, Tayuman shoreline of Pila-Pila, Limbon-Limbon, Ithan in Mainland. Bombong, Bangad, Buhangin, Janosa and Kaytome in Talim Island

The Baras series is a member of the very fine montmorillionific isohyporthermic family of udorthentic Pellusterts. The soils are deep, poorly drained occurring on level to very gently sloping (0-5 percent slope) minor alluvial plain. The color ranges from dark gray clay (hues of 10 YR to 5Y) with no more than 40 cm. thick Ag horizon. Bg horizon is composed predominantly of gray dark gray, light gray to gray and olive gray with distinct brown and olive mottles. Cg horizon below 110-150 cm. from the surface are olive gray, olive and pale gray with distinct clear gray, and light yellowish brown mottles, few soft and hard Fe-Mn concretions may be presenting the horizon. CaCO3 nodules and weathered tuffaceous fragments may also be present and generally increases with depth.
Cracking of the surface soil with a width of 2 to 3 centimeters to a depth of 50 to one meter is commonly observed during dry season.

BINANGONAN CLAY
Soil mapping unit symbolSoil mapping unit description
BnA0-2% slope
BnB2-5% slope

Found in the upland portion of barangay Pantok and Palangoy in the vicinity of Sitio Mata and in Mabuhay Homes in Bgy. Darangan.

The Binangonan series is a member of the very fine, montmorillomitic, isohyperthermic family of Undorthentic Pellusterts. They are deep poorly drained soils occurring on level to gently sloping (0-5 percent slope) narrow mini-plain of the alluvial landscape. The soils are developed from alluvium of volcanic and limestone origin.
Ag horizons not more than 40 centimeters thick are gray, dark gray clay overlying cambic Bg horizon predominantly of gray to very dark gray, olive gray with distinct clear (dark) yellowish brown, grayish brown, olive gray and gray mottles. Few soft and hard Fe-Mn concretions and CaCO3 nodules commonly occur. Cg horizon below 100 to 150 centimeters from the soil surface are olive gray, pale olive or mottled light olive brown, olive, grayish brown clay. Concretions of  iron and manganese and CaCO3 nodules are present.

TERESA CLAY
Soil mapping unit symbolSoil mapping unit description
TaA0.2% slope
TaB2.5% slope

Found along the municipal boundary of Binangonan, Teresa and Morong triangle. In the upper portion of barangay Pantok and Darangan and in the vicinity of Rizal Cement Quarry.

The Teresa series is a member of the very fine, montmorillonitic, isohyperthemic family of Udorthentic Pellusterts. They are moderately deep to deep poorly drained soils occurring on nearly level to gently sloping (0-5 percent slopes) narrow mini-plain of the alluvial landscape. The soil, this series are developed mainly from alluvium, derived from weathered tuffaceous materials, and perhaps from deposited bio-chemically weathered products of limestone, basalt and site and conglomerate from the adjacent hills and mountains fringing the area. Ag horizons are gray, dark gray to very dark gray clay and not more than 40 cm thick. Cambic Bg horizons composed predominantly or light to very dark gray or olive gray have distinct brown and gray mottles. Slightly and strongly weathered rock fragments with Fe-Mn concretions commonly occur. Cg horizons, 60-150 cm. deep from the soil surface are olive gray, dark gray clay and sometimes with gray, yellowish brown and light yellowish brown mottles with few Fe-Mn concretion and CaCO3 nodules.

ANTIPOLO CLAY
Soil mapping unit symbolSoil mapping unit description
ApD18-15% slope
ApF225-45% slope

Found on large part of barangay Tayuman, Bilibiran in the vicinity of Village East Subdivision and the East Ridge Golf Course and in the upland portion of barangay Pantok and Palangoy

The Antipolo series is a member of the fine, mixed, isohyperthermic family of typic Tropudalfs. They are moderately deep to deep well drained soils occurring on undulating to rolling basaltic hills and ridges with localized valley.  Horizons are brown to dark  brown, dark brown, yellowish brown or dark reddish brown clay, clay loam or silty clay loam. Argillic Bt horizons are yellowish red, strong brown, reddish brown or yellowish brown clay with none to few distinct clear brown, reddish brown, dark reddish brown or yellowish red mottles and sometimes light gray to gray when used for paddy rice. Partially and highly weathered rock fragments are present and increase in abundance with depth. Iron and manganese concretions may occur. C horizon, 40-90 cm. deep, are strong brown or yellowish red clay which are common to many weathered rock fragments. Few Fe-Mn concretions may also occur in this layer. Underlying this horizon is hard consolidated bedrock.

TUTULO CLAY
Soil mapping unit symbolSoil mapping unit description
Ttb2-5 % slope
TtB/C2-8 % slope
Ttc5-8 % slope
TtD8-15 % slope

Found in the upland portion of barangay Pantok, predominant in the part of barangay Darangan, Macamot, Tatala including Balatik Area, Calumpang, and in most  part of Mahabang Parang.

The Tutulo series is a member of the very fine, mixed, isohyperthermic family of Udorthentic Pallusterts. They are shallow to moderately deep poorly drained soil occurring both on undulating to rolling moderately dissected agglomerate plateau with concave slopes and convex ridges and gently sloping volcanic foot slopes. The soil has gray to very dark gray clay A horizon not more than 25 cm. thick. Bg horizons, 40-100 cm. deep, are gray to very dark clay with distinct clear brown to dark brown, light olive gray or yellowish brown mottles. Few small soft Fe-Mn concretions and CaCO3 nodules are also present. Few to common weathered tuff occurs in this layer.

CALANTAS CLAY
Soil mapping unit symbolSoil mapping unit description
CaC15-8% slope slight eroded
CaD18-15% slope slight eroded
Cae115-25% slope slight eroded
Caf225-45% slope slight eroded
CaG245-65% slope slight eroded

Found in the lower area of barangay Macamot, Tatala and Mambog along the national highway, most part of barangay Lunsad in mainland, barangay Kasile, Bombong, Bangad, Janosa, Kaytome, Gulod, Sapang, Malakaban, Pinagdilawan, Ginoong Sanay, Tabon, Habagatan and Rayap in Talim Island.

The Calantas series is a member of the fine, mixed, isohyperthermic family of Lithic Troporthents. They are well drained shallow soils occurring on low tuffaceous hills and ridges and rolling to steep convex agglomerate hills of the volcanic hills landscape. The soils have brown to dark brown, dark yellowish brown, very dark grayish brown clay, clay loam or silty clay A horizon not more than 20 cm thick. The C horizon is dark, brown, brown to dark brown, yellowish brown clay or clay loam which are common to many weathered volcanic tuff fragments. Below this layer is hard tuff.

Few to many surface stones and boulders commonly occur. Erosion is slight to moderate.

Geology

Pure  hard  crystalline  limestone deposits  about  in large  quantity  in  the
town. Gypsum deposits, mined in Bilibiran quarry, are being manufactured into Portland Cement by the Rizal Cement Company since 1914.

Natural Drainage

In  mainland,  there  are  three  rivers  and  one  creek  serving  as  natural
drainage and Laguna Lake tributaries.  These are rivers Lasi, Bilibiran and Darangan, and Gupiing creek.
The Lasi  River  serves  as  the  draining  area of the  poblacion.  The river
source lies between the hilly portion of Mahabang Parang, passes the northern slopes of Kalbaryo in Libid, circles around the poblacion and flows out to Laguna Lake.  It does not have a spring and its source of water is the rain.
The twisting river in  Bilibiran  continuously  feeds  Laguna  Lake with cool,
Fresh water coming from a spring located in the hilly pasture land called Ray Tupas.  The river is also a rich source of fresh water fish particularly water eels which are considered a delicacy.  It is also a source of irrigation for ricefields along the bank and it nestles duck raising ventures in the area.

Darangan  River  serves as  a repository  of water from upland area during
Rainy season.  It is used as canal for irrigation system installed between the river bank and Laguna Lake.  Natural processes silted the mouth of the river but it is widened and deepened by dredging to induce inflow of lake water.
In Talim Island, each barangay has at least one natural creek which drains rain water coming from mountainous areas to the Laguna Lake.


Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Local forest is generally classified as Savana.  Its vegetation is characterized by the growth of talahib cogon, native Ipil-Ipil, madre cacao and bamboos. Fruit bearing trees like mango, atis, duhat, bignay are grown in both the upland and lowland.  Trees of dipterocarp species, the source of lumber, are seldom found in the municipality. However, there are species like narra and mahogany cultivated in the lowland.
Monkeys can be found in Mt. Susong Dalaga in Talim Island.  There are no more wild animals, only birds in the town upland areas.


Environmental Situation

Assessment of the municipality’s environmental situation includes the problems on the critical ecosystem like the Laguna Lake basin, erosion, population, waste management  and sanitation.

a) Laguna De Bay Basin

The Laguna Lake provides food supply and livelihood to countless families in the community and it is the nearest and largest source of potable water for domestic use.  As such, it must be protected from disturbances  pollution coming from industrial, agricultural and domestic sources, siltation due to erosion and man-made structures that are environmentally disastrous.
The concentration of industries in Metro Manila and Laguna side of the lake makes the Central Bay, the municipal territorial water, a dumping area of the waste discharge from industries that have no waste water treatment facilities.  Forty-one percent (41%) of these industrial waste discharges contain toxic and hazardous subtances which exceed the safe criteria for the protection of aquatic life.
Domestic waste are being discharge through the river tributaries.  Other pollutants include pesticides and fertilizers used by farmers and  thriving livestock industries not only in Binangonan but the  whole coastal areas of the lake.   The total pesticide used in 1976 amounted to 104,000 kg. (dry form) and 184,000 kg. (liquid form) which increased by 20 to 25% with the completion of the Regional Irrigation Projects.  The major BOD loading to the lake by major contributors are as follow:
Industries- 225 kg/day 
Domestic- 226,000 kg/day
Agri-business- 300,000 kg/day
Sedimentation and siltation of the lake, as a result of forest denudation within the basin watershed, is another factor. The average volume of derived sediments is approximately 1.5 x 10-6 cubic meters/day retaining 2/3 of sediments  in the lake. This  decreases the lake’s depth thereby increasing water turbidity affecting the productivity.

The quality of lake water generally meets class C standard. This can be used for  propagation of fish and aquatic resources, recreational boating, and industrial water supply class which is used  for manufacturing processes after treatment. But class C standard is not met in areas near the mouths of polluted rivers.  Water quality   even  in   Central   Bay   is   generally   worse       than    in   the   East   and     South Bays   bordering  Laguna because    it  has    the highest
contents of nitrates,    inorganic phospates and MPN coliform.  The  lake  water   is below the more desirable class B used for recreation, and classes A and AA used for public water supply.
Man-made structure like the Napindan locks prevents the entry of saline water from Manila Bay necessary to  maintain the lake ecosystem.
The thermal pollution, traceable to about 1,075 industries that use the lake water as cooling agent and ultimately discharge it as heated water, has negligible effect on the biotic-abiotic relationships.
To address the pressing problems of the lake basin, the following solutions are recommended:

A program for effective control of urban/domestic and agro-industrial waste.
A program for the reforestation of areas identified with moderate and severe erosion potentials.
Evaluation of the benefits of pollution control and other forms of technology.
Re-assess tourism as a key to development without negating environment protection.
5.Provide a ceiling for urban and industrial development.
6.Intensification of Zero Waste technology.

b) Erosion

Although erosion problem is not critical yet, the danger posed by the conversion of upper portion of northern barangays into subdivisions cannot be taken lightly.  The recent policy to prevent soil erosion is the requirement for land developers to plant trees and to allocate spaces for vegetation cover in urban land use, prosed for the construction of grouted Rip-Rap structure on all critical  area of erosion.
In  Talim Island, the areas observed to have severe erosion potential are those  with slopes and converted into the production of charcoal and firewood, the  alternative livelihood during the months when fish catch is marginal. 

c) Flooding

Flash floods due to siltation usually occur in the northern part of the municipality particularly Pag-Asa, and part of Tayuman and Calumpang.  These areas are briefly under water during heavy rains.  The dredging of natural drainage, construction of CHB-lined canal and cross pipes leading to the lake are the proposed remedies for flash  floods in some areas wich is highly populated. Areas Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP) is Highly Recommendable drainage system because it is friction free and garbage cannot easily accommodate on tributary system.

d) Pollution

Although the Pollution Threatened Areas Map indicates the mainland as a potentially threatened area, the municipality as a whole is still a safe, livable place because inland, air and noise pollution can be considered minimal.  The emission of ashes with solid waste coming from the Rizal Cement Company has been contained with the installation of Electrostatic Precipitator.
There are no immediate solutions at hand for noise pollution caused by tricycles, that are affecting the poblacion residents.  For underground pollution, LLDA has the following assessments:
“Water samples in Binangonan have high total absolute salts and unsuitable chloride ions.  They also have high sodium content which could have come from fertilizers and detergents used in bathing and washing activities.”

e) Waste and Garbage Management
Garbage collection in this municipality was a big problem during the early part of 1998. Now the road is already concreted and (2) more garbage trucks are to be procured in addition to the existing 5 units and the 15 barangay trucks.
There is no particularly specifies container for waste discharge, so wastes are contained in different kinds of plastic bags, rice sacks, bamboo baskets paper and drums.
Of the total amount of waste discharged, around 85% is collected and disposed off at the dumpsite. The rest are burned or illegally dumped on nearby spaces or dumped into rivers or creeks, segregation is not practiced and its rules and regulations.
The daily average volume of garbage collected is 500 cu. m. this is literally reduced due to the presence of scavengers at the site and of the loaders (pickers) of junkshop. A small percentage is composted at the facility located at Barangay Libis.
Street sweepers maintain the cleanliness within the poblacion and public market area.
Before, our dumpsite was on open pit.  Presently, it is a controlled dump facility.  The DENR has granted a Notice to Proceed to the Municipality’s Proposed Controlled Dump Facility in line with the objectives of R.A. 9003, otherwise known as “ Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 “.  Perimeter fence was constructed around the site and sufficient equipment are being used in leveling the garbage and backfilling it by 150 mm thick of filling materials and spraying the garbage with chemicals to eliminate insects and foul odor.


Existing Land Use

In the 1980’s , the Municipality of Binangonan was generally an agricultural town with around 2,232.4 hectares or 30.70 percent of its total land area devoted to agriculture. On the other hand, a significant area of 3,910.4 hectares or 53.79 percent of the total municipal land area were grasslands or idle lands. Other land uses in the same period were forestlands with 273 hectares or 3.76 percent, and built-up with 854.2 hectares or 11.75 percent, respectively.

The physical development mode of the municipality can be described as linear. People tend to concentrate along areas where roads and water transportations are available. Thus, built-up areas are scattered along the major roads and the coastline of  Laguna de Bay.

In the 1990’s, the town experienced rapid urbanization brought by increased commercial and industrial activities both within and the surrounding areas of the municipality. As a result of this condition, demand for more spaces was altogether felt. The most visible impact of urbanization was the conversion of agricultural lands to urban uses such as residential, commercial and industrial.

The area of agricultural lands was reduced to about 1,460.5 hectares. This figure represents a 65.42 percent reduction of agricultural lands from the 1980’s to the 1990’s.

Cemeteries are concentrated in southern portion of the mainland. These are the privately-owned Catholic Cemetery in Layunan and Santo Rosario Memorial Park in Gupiing, Lunsad, and the old municipal cemetery in Batingan which was bulldozed to give way to a new plan for development. On the other hand, the island barangays have three cemeteries located in Kaytome, Malacaban, and Habagatan-Talim.Only one cemetery on the northern part of the mainland specifically at Barangay Bilibiran was constructed last 2005 and now operational, the East Garden Memorial Park,.

On the other hand, urban land uses are distributed for residential, commercial, institutional and industrial purposes. Though, it can be noted, that there is a mix of uses that are incompatible such as residential and industrial establishment. Example of these are the Rizal Cement Company, Inc. in Calumpang, Grandspan Corporation in Tagpos, and Ford Truck Philippines in Batingan. Commercial establishments are largely concentrated within the center of the town and caters to the needs of the local population. Other built-up areas of the municipality which are distributed municipal wide also have commercial activities interspered with residential uses.

The dominant commercial establishments in the municipality includes retail stores and groceries, from input stores, business and personal services.



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